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With a boom in museums, galleries, fairs and the art market, the Chinese capital is firing all creative cylinders. We dive into the city’s art scene
Retail has had three phases, according to Katelijn Quartier, who heads the Retail Design Laboratory at Hasselt University in Belgium. ‘In Retail 1.0, the manufacturer was in charge and no designer was needed. Retail 2.0 was a phase where the retailer was in charge but hired an architect or interior architect to design the store following the brand’s or retailer’s ideas,’ she wrote in Retail Design, Theoretical Perspectives (Routledge). We have entered ‘Retail 3.0, a time when the customer is more and more in charge… This asks for much more from a designer than to translate a retailer’s identity into a store design and goes beyond mere functionality and efficiency – even more so now that a commodification of products, brands and retail is occurring’.
In the early 1980s the Dutch government granted a large subsidy to the municipality of ‘s-Hertogenbosch situated north-west of Eindhoven. The idea was to create housing for experimental living and from this was born the Bolwoningen. They were the idea of architect Dries Kreijkamp and he wanted to cr